S2-Glass

High Strength Glassfibers

Technical Product Guide

For a PDF-Format, Please click here: AGY_Technical_Product_Guide-Revised

 

==== please click on the above link which is the below content, but in a much better format. We use the below format to find keywords in the PDF-Library. =====

 

Technical Product Guide
www.agy.com
DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY This data is offered solely as a guide in the selection of a reinforcement. The information contained in this publication is based on actual laboratory data and field test experience. We believe this information to be reliable, but do not guarantee its applicability to the user’s process or assume any liability arising out of its use or performance. The user, by accepting the products described herein, agrees to be responsible for thoroughly testing any application to determine its suitability before committing to production. It is important for the user to determine the properties of its own commercial compounds when using this or any other reinforcement. BECAUSE OF NUMEROUS FACTORS AFFECTING RESULTS, WE MAKE NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THOSE OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. STATEMENTS IN THIS DOCUMENT SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED AS REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OR AS INDUCEMENTS TO INFRINGE ANY PATENT OR VIOLATE ANY LAW, SAFETY CODE, OR INSURANCE REGULATION. S-2 Glass® and ZenTron® are registered trademarks of AGY. VeTron™ is a trademark of AGY. Pub No. LIT-2014-351 R1(1/14) Printed in USA © 2014 AGY
AGY – World Headquarters/Americas 2556 Wagener Road Aiken, South Carolina 29801 USA Phone: +(1) 888.434.0945 (toll free) +(1) 803.643.1501 Fax: +(1) 803.643.1180 Email: asktheexperts@agy.com
AGY – Europe Le Gemellyon Nord 57 Boulevard Marius Vivier Merle 69003 Lyon, France Phone: +(33) 4727 81775 Fax: +(33) 4727 81780
AGY – Asia Suite 1306-8, Bldg 1, No.1628 Jinshajiang Rd. Shanghai 200333 China Phone: +(86) 21 3251 3871 Fax: +(86) 21 3251 2839
www.agy.com
Table of Contents
1
Corporate Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Glass Fiber Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . .3 Glass Fiber Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Yarn Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 AGY Glass Yarns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 AGY Glass Rovings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 AGY Chopped Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 AGY Forming-Tube Input . . . . . . . . . . . .20 AGY Packaging and Pallet Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Sizing Systems for Yarns, Rovings and Chopped Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Yarn Sizing Grid – Processability and Compatibility . . . . . .30 Roving Sizing Grid – Processability and Compatibility . . . . . .32 Chopped Fiber Sizing Grid – Processability and Compatibility . . . . . .33 Typical Fiber Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Glass Fiber Manufacturing
3
Corporate Overview
2
AGY provides the best quality, highest performance glass fiber yarns to a wide variety of markets and end uses. Founded in late 1998, AGY is a relatively new name in the market with a long history of service to these markets. Globally, AGY has over 75 0 employees involved in production, sales, distribution and development of glass fiber yarns. Our world headquarters, technology center and manufacturing is located in Aiken, SC USA. We have also established commercial and administrative offices in Lyon, France.
AGY glass fiber yarn textile fibers are made from molten glass. The viscous liquid is drawn through tiny holes at the base of the furnace to form hair-like filaments. A protective sizing, applied as the filament cools and hardens, helps prevent abrasion during additional processing and makes the glass compatible with various resin systems. For yarn products, after sizing is applied, filaments are gathered into strands and wound into intermediate (forming) packages for processing. These strands become the basic components for a variety of textile and roving products. Textile yarns are produced by twisting and sometimes plying several strands of fiber. Once twisted, the yarns can be further processed by beaming or rewinding onto different packages. Textile yarns can also be textured for decorative and industrial applications and coated with a variety of resinous or elastomeric materials. For some textile processes, the gathered strands are not wound onto packages but are further processed into chopped strands for wet-formed product end-uses.
Shipping Package
Furnace
Raw Material Storage
Forming Package
Bushing Filaments SizingBatch House
Various Yarn Bobbins
Air Jet Shipping Package
Chopper
Beam
Customer
Customer
Customer
Customer
Customer

Twisting

BOBBIN YARNS
PROCESS
TEXTURIZED YARNS
BEAMED YARNS
CHOPPED STRANDS
ASSEMBLED ROVING
ZENTRON

Yarns are pulled from forming packages onto bobbins with varying levels of twist and ply.
Customer
Oven
••
Yarn Nomenclature
5
Glass Fiber Nomenclature
4
*Le System International d’Unites (SI)
General Glass fiber yarns are typically identified by either an inch-pound based system (U.S. customary system) or a TEX/metric system (based on the SI*/metric system). This section gives a brief description of glass fiber yarn nomenclature, including comparisons of the two systems. A more comprehensive description can be found in ASTM D578 – standard specification for glass fiber strands. AGY’s products use standardized nomenclature designations that include both alphabetical and numerical elements. They identify glass composition, filament type, strand count and yarn construction. These designations match either an inch-pound version or a TEX/metric version. Both systems are industryrecognized identifications.
Roving Nomenclature Glass fiber roving nomenclature is defined by ASTM D578. The nomenclature uses alpha-numeric designations signifying binder, sizing, yield in yards and method of manufacture/construction of a roving. The following is an explanation of the standard alpha-numerical form: XXXX-YY-ZZZZ. n “XXXX” is a number/character combination signifying a binder (sizing). Typically it is a three-digit number with or without a letter designation afterwards. The final digit would typically reflect a revision to the sizing (e.g., 721B is a successor to 721A but is the same basic chemistry). n “YY” is a two-character alpha (letter) designation used internally by AGY to identify the method of manufacture or construction of a roving. It may be an assemblage of multiple ends of a G75 yarn input to produce a given yield. The letters would change as the method of production changed. If the method of manufacture changed to a single-end roving, the designator would be changed (e.g., 449-AA-750 multi-end roving compared to ZenTron® 758-AB-675 single-end roving). Note that each company producing glass fiber rovings use their own letter designations so they would not be comparable for similar products from different manufacturers. Because of this, roving nomenclature is often shortened to indicate only the sizing and the yield as in 449-750, dropping the two-letter middle designator. n “ZZZZ” at the end of the form is the yield in yards/lb for US customary system (or TEX for the SI/metric system), typically rounded to the nearest conventional yield (e.g., AGY’s 750 yield rovings are actually 735 yds/lb nominal). Designations such as 250, 750 and 1250 have been in existence for years, and it has become convention to use them instead of actual nominals. Please refer to the appropriate product technical specification for actual yields of a given product.
Typical Yarn Nomenclature Identified in U.S. Customary System (based on inch-pound) E
C
G
75
1/2
2.8
S
Glass Composition: E=Electrical C=Chemical S=High Strength
Type of Filament: C=Continuous S=Staple T=Texturized
Filament Diameter: (see Table 1)
Yield Designation: (see Table 2)
Number of single strands twisted into continuous filament ends/Number of twisted strands plied together
Number of turns per inch in the twist of the final yarn
Direction of twist S=S direction Z=Z direction (See next page)
E
C
9
68
1×2
S
112
Glass Composition: E=Electrical C=Chemical S=High Strength
Type of Filament: C=Continuous S=Staple T=Texturized
Filament Diameter: (see Table 1)
Yield Designation: (see Table 2)
Number of single strands twisted into continuous filament ends x Number of twisted strands plied together
Direction of twist S=S direction Z=Z direction (See next page)
Number of turns per meter in the twist of the final yarn
The example above then identifies the following yarn: ECG75 1/2 2.8S E= electrical glass C= continuous filament G= average filament diameter (see Table 1) 75 = 7,500 yards/lb. nominal bare glass in basic strand 1/2 = one ply of 2-strand construction (total 2 basic strands) 2.8 = the number of turns per inch (TPI) in the twist of the final yarn S= the direction of the twist
Typical Yarn Nomenclature Identified in TEX/Metric System (based on SI/metric)
The example above then identifies the following yarn: EC9 68 1×2 S112 E= electrical glass C= continuous filament 9= 9 micrometers 68 = 68 grams per 1,000 meters of yarn 1×2 = one ply of 2-strand construction (total 2 basic strands) S= the direction of the twist 112 = the number of turns per meter (TPM) in the twist of the final yarn
Yarn Nomenclature (continued)
6 7
Twist The fifth segment in the nomenclature is the number of basic strands* twisted together in a single yarn. Following this number is the number of turns per unit length and either the letter “S” or “Z” which indicates the direction of the twist. The S or Z direction of the yarn is determined by the slope of the yarn when it is held in a vertical position. A twist is mechanically applied to yarns because, in addition to helping keep all of the filaments together, it provides the yarn higher abrasion resistance, improved processing, and better tensile strength.
U.S. Customary Yield The approximate length of the fabricated yarn required to make one pound mass can be computed when the yield designation number is multiplied by 100 and divided by the total number of strands. The result of this computation must always be considered approximate. The yards per pound are reduced slightly in the twisting and plying operations, and by the addition of sizes or binders.
S-Twist: The strands assume an ascending right to left configuration as in the central portion of the letter S.
Z-Twist: The strands assume an ascending left to right configuration as in the central portion of the letter Z.
* A “basic” strand is one produced from a single bushing.
Table 1 – Designations for Glass Strand Filament Diameters
Filament Designation Range for Filament Diameter Average U.S. Units SI Units Microns Inches (letter) (microns) BC 4 3.60 to 4.40 0.00014 to 0.000170 C 4.5 4.41 to 5.07 0.000171 to 0.000190 D5 5.08 to 6.32 0.00020 to 0.000249 DE 6 5.72 to 6.96 0.000225 to 0.000274 E7 6.35 to 7.61 0.00025 to 0.000299 F8 7.62 to 8.86 0.00030 to 0.000349 G9 8.89 to 10.15 0.00035 to 0.000399 H 11 10.16 to 11.42 0.00040 to 0.000449 J 12 11.43 to 12.69 0.00045 to 0.000499 K 13 12.70 to 13.96 0.00050 to 0.000549 L 14 13.97 to 15.23 0.00055 to 0.000599 M 16 15.24 to 16.50 0.00060 to 0.000649 N 17 16.51 to 17.77 0.00065 to 0.000699 P 18 17.78 to 19.04 0.00070 to 0.000749 Q 20 19.05 to 20.31 0.00075 to 0.000799 R 21 20.32 to 21.58 0.00080 to 0.000849 S 22 21.59 to 22.85 0.00085 to 0.000899 T 23 22.86 to 24.12 0.00090 to 0.000949 U 24 24.13 to 25.40 0.00095 to 0.000999
The low values stated for each micron range are exact equivalents to inches, rounded to the nearest hundredth micron. The high values stated for each micron range are slightly higher than exact equivalents to inches to provide continuation between ranges. They are consistent for inch-pound and SI filament size descriptions commonly used in the industry. In some publications, the SI designation for H filament size has been shown as 10.
Yarn Nomenclature (continued)
8 9
Table 2 – Description of Continuous Filament Glass Fibers Filament Designation Nominal Yarn Number (strand count) US Units SI Units 100 yds/lb Bare SI Units Approximate (letter) (microns) Glass TEX (g/1000m) Number of (yds/lb) Filaments BC 4 3,000 300,000 1.7 51 BC 4 2,250 225,000 2.2 66 BC 4 1,500 150,000 3.3 102 D5 1,800 180,000 2.75 51 C 4.5 1,200 120,000 4.1 102 D5 900 90,000 5.5 102 D5 450 45,000 11 204 E7 225 22,500 22 204 BC 4 150 15,000 33 1,064 DE 6 150 15,000 33 408 G9 150 15,000 33 204 E7 110 11,000 45 408 H 11 110 11,000 45 204 DE 6 100 10,000 50 612 DE 6 75 7,500 66 816 G9 75 7,500 66 408 K 13 75 7,500 66 204 H 11 55 5,500 90 408 DE 6 50 5,000 99 1,224 DE 6 37 3,700 134 1,632 G9 37 3,700 134 816 K 13 37 3,700 134 408 H 11 25 2,500 198 816 G9 19 1,900 257 1,632 K 13 18 1,800 275 816 H 11 18 1,800 275 1,224
Table 3 – Yarn Reference and Conversion Formulas Conversion – Measurements US SI To Convert To Convert Units Units US Units to SI SI Units to US Multiply By: Multiply By: Length mile km 1.6093 0.6214 inch mm 25.400 0.0394 inch cm 2.5400 0.3937 foot m 0.3048 3.2808 yard m 0.9144 1.0936 Area yard2 m2 0.8361 1.1960 inch2 cm2 6.4516 0.1550 feet2 m2 0.0929 10.7639 Textile oz/yd g/m 31.0039 0.0323 oz/yd2 g/m2 33.9063 0.0295 turns/in turns/m 39.3700 0.0254 (tpi) (tpm) yd/lb m/kg 2.0159 0.4961
Cross Reference – Strand Twist Turns Per Inch (TPI) vs. Turns Per Meter (TPM) – Industry Standard TPI TPM TPI TPM 0.5 20 3.0 120 0.7 28 3.5 140 1.0 40 3.8 152 1.3 52 4.0 160 2.0 80 5.0 200 2.8 112 7.0 280
Conversion – Yardage US Units Metric Units to US Units Denier = 4,464,492 yds/lb = 4,464,492 (yds/lbs) Denier TEX = 496,055 yds/lb = 496,055 (yds/lbs) TEX TEX = 590.5 Cotton Count = 590.5 Cotton Count TEX Denier = 5315 Cotton Count = 5315 Cotton Count Denier Denier = TEX x 9.0
Note that the strand count indicates a basic strand* of yarn.
* A basic strand is one produced from a single bushing.
11
AGY Glass Yarns
E-Glass Yarns
10
Filament Microns Yield Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Designation (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
BC 4 150 1/0 1.0Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 4.0 17.8 636 7636 Architectural Fabrics BC 4 150 1/0 3.0Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 4.0 17.8 636 7635/9228 Architectural Fabrics BC 4 150 2/0 3.0Z 66 7,450 594 0.203 0.0080 8.0 35.6 636 9228 Architectural Fabrics BC 4 150 4/0 3.0Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.203 0.0080 16.0 71.2 636 9228 Architectural Fabrics BC 4 1,500 1/0 1.0Z 3.3 150,000 30 0.061 0.0024 0.3 1.3 622 7636 Ultrafine Electronics BC 4 2,250 1/0 0.7Z 2.2 225,000 20 0.046 0.0018 0.2 0.9 622 7636 Ultrafine Electronics BC 4 3,000 1/0 0.7Z 1.7 300,000 15 0.030 0.0012 0.2 0.7 622 7636 Ultrafine Electronics C 4.5 1,200 1/0 1.0Z 4.1 120,000 37 0.045 0.0017 0.4 1.8 622 7636 Electronics D5 450 1/0 1.0Z 11 45,000 99 0.122 0.0048 1.3 5.8 620-1 7636 Electronics D5 450 1/0 1.0Z 11 45,000 99 0.122 0.0048 1.3 5.8 622 8542/7636 Electronics D5 450 1/0 1.0Z 11 45,000 99 0.122 0.0048 1.5 6.7 723 7636 Electrical Tape D5 900 1/0 1.0Z 5.5 90,000 50 0.084 0.0033 0.6 2.7 620-1 7636 Electronics D5 900 1/0 1.0Z 5.5 90,000 50 0.084 0.0033 0.6 2.7 622 7636 Electronics D5 1,800 1/0 1.0Z 2.75 180,000 25 0.068 0.0026 0.3 1.3 620-1 7636 Electronics DE 6 37 1/0 0.5Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.396 0.0156 11.2 49.8 602 8542/8571 Texturizing DE 6 37 1/0 1.0Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.396 0.0156 11.2 49.8 636 8542/8571 Weaving DE 6 50 1/0 0.7Z 99 5,000 891 0.371 0.0146 8.0 35.6 602 8542 Texturizing DE 6 75 1/0 0.5Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 5.7 25.4 602 8542/8571 Texturizing DE 6 75 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 5.7 25.4 620 8542/8571 Aerospace/Filtration DE 6 100 1/0 0.7Z 50 10,000 450 0.249 0.0098 4.3 19.1 602 8542 Texturizing DE 6 100 1/0 0.7Z 50 10,000 450 0.249 0.0098 4.3 19.1 636 8542 Weaving DE 6 150 1/0 0.7Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 3.5 15.6 620 8542 Electronics E7 225 1/0 1.0Z 22 22,500 198 0.165 0.0065 2.4 10.7 620-1 8542 Electronics E7 225 1/0 0.5Z 22 22,500 198 0.165 0.0065 2.4 10.7 622 8542 Knitting G9 37 1/0 3.0Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.396 0.0156 10.0 44.5 620 9225 Winding/Braiding G9 37 1/0 0.7Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.396 0.0156 10.0 44.5 620-1 8571 Winding/Braiding G9 37 1/0 0.5Z 134 3,700 1,206 0.396 0.0156 19.4 86.1 517 8542 Pultrusion G9 37 1/0 0.7Z 134 3,700 1,207 0.396 0.0156 19.4 86.1 603 8542 Pultrusion G9 37 1/2 2.8S 268 1,850 2,413 0.568 0.0224 20.0 89.0 620 8542 Winding/Braiding G9 37 1/3 3.8S 402 1,233 3,621 0.663 0.0261 30.0 133.5 620 8542 Winding/Braiding G9 50 1/0 0.7Z 99 5,000 891 0.356 0.0140 9.0 40.1 620 8571 Winding/Braiding G9 75 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 7.1 31.6 620 8542/8571 Winding/Braiding G9 75 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 9.7 42.7 517 8542 Pultrusion G9 75 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 9.7 42.7 603 8542 Pultrusion G9 75 1/2 2.8S 133 3,650 1,197 0.378 0.0149 11.4 50.8 620 8542 Winding/Braiding
13
AGY Glass Yarns (continued)
12
Filament Microns Yield Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Designation (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
G9 150 1/0 4.0Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 3.2 14.2 620-1 9228 Leaching G9 150 1/0 0.7Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 3.5 15.6 620 8542 Winding/Braiding G9 150 1/0 0.7Z 33 15,000 297 0.203 0.0080 3.2 14.2 636 9225 Weaving G9 150 3/0 3.0Z 99 5,000 893 0.302 0.0119 9.6 42.7 636 9225 Weaving G9 150 4/0 4.0Z 137 3,620 1,233 0.348 0.0137 12.8 56.9 620-1 9225 Leaching H 11 18 1/0 0.7Z 276 1,800 2,484 0.526 0.0206 18.0 80.1 620 8542/8571 Winding/Braiding H 11 25 1/0 0.7Z 198 2,500 1,782 0.376 0.0148 15.0 66.7 620 8542 Braiding H 11 55 1/0 0.7Z 90 5,500 810 0.318 0.0125 7.8 34.7 641 8542 Braiding K 13 18 1/0 0.5Z 276 1,800 2,484 0.526 0.0206 35.4 155.8 517 8542 Pultrusion K 13 75 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.269 0.0106 9.7 42.7 517 8542 Pultrusion
Package Type Microns Weight Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Average (lbs) (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
BC-4 4 2.5 2/2 9.6Z 139.7 3,550 1257 0.346 0.014 13.0 57.3 636 8512 Sewing Thread BC-6 4 6.0 2/3 9.1Z 212.9 2,330 1916 0.438 0.017 20.0 89.0 636 8542 Sewing Thread BC-8 4 2.5 2/4 8.3Z 236.7 1,730 2581 0.508 0.020 25.0 11.2 636 8512 Sewing Thread
E-Glass Yarns (continued)
Filament Microns Yield Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Designation (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
E7 255 1/0 1.0Z 19.5 25,500 175 0.168 0.0065 1.9 8.5 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics DE 6 340 1/0 1.0Z 14.6 34,000 131 0.139 0.0054 1.5 6.7 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics D5 510 1/0 1.0Z 9.7 51,000 88 0.124 0.0048 1.1 4.9 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics D5 1,020 1/0 1.0Z 4.9 102,000 44 0.085 0.0033 0.5 2.2 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics C 4.5 1,360 1/0 1.0Z 3.7 136,000 33 0.077 0.0030 0.4 1.8 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics
L-Glass™ Yarns
Filament Microns Yield Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Designation (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
G975 1/0 1.0Z 66 7,500 594 0.192 0.0076 7.1 31.6 636 7636 Aerospace G975 1/0 0.7Z 66 7,500 594 0.192 0.0076 10.7 47.5 933 7636 Aerospace G975 1/0 1.0Z 66 7,500 594 0.192 0.0076 12.9 57.4 493 7636 Aerospace G9 150 1/0 1.0Z 33 15,000 297 0.136 0.0054 3.7 16.5 636 7636 Aerospace G9 150 1/0 1.0Z 33 15,000 297 0.136 0.0054 5.6 25.0 493 7636 Aerospace D5 450 1/0 1.0Z 11 45,000 99 0.076 0.0030 1.75 7.8 636 7636 Aerospace
S-2 Glass® Yarns
E-Glass (BC Sewing Thread)
15
AGY Glass Yarns (continued)
14
Filament Microns Yield Construction Twist Nominal Yield Denier Yarn Diameter Min Tensile Sizing Bobbin Application Designation (TEX) (yds/lb) (mm) (inches) (lbs) (N)
D5 450 1/0 1.0Z 11.0 45,000 99 0.124 0.0048 1.3 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics C 4.5 1,200 1/0 1.0Z 4.1 120,000 37 0.077 0.0030 0.4 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics BC 4 1,500 1/0 1.0Z 3.3 150,000 30 0.062 0.0024 0.3 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics BC 4 3,000 1/0 0.7Z 1.7 300,000 15 0.031 0.0012 0.15 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics BC 4 3,200 1/0 0.2Z 1.6 320,000 14 0.028 0.0011 0.15 620-1 7636 Specialty Electronics
S-3 HDI™ Yarns
Nomenclature Yield Sizing Nominal Package Net US Units SI Units Designation (yds/lb) (TEX) Weight
ETDE 1.75 ET6-2835 1.75 None 173 2,867 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 1.75 ET6-2835 1.75 Acrylic 168 2,953 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 2.25 ET6-2205 2.25 None 217 2,286 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 2.25 ET6-2205 2.25 Acrylic 214 2,318 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 3.50 ET6-1417 3.50 None 349 1,421 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 3.50 ET6-1417 3.50 Acrylic 346 1,434 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 4.50 ET6-1102 4.50 None 440 1,127 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 4.50 ET6-1102 4.50 Acrylic 432 1,148 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 6.00 ET6-827 6.00 None 589 842 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 6.00 ET6-827 6.00 Acrylic 564 880 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 9.00 ET6-551 9.00 None 878 565 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 10.00 ET6-496 10.00 Cellosize 1,030 482 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 11.60 ET6-428 11.60 None 1,205 412 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 11.60 ET6-428 11.60 Cellosize 1,193 416 4002 3-25 lbs ETDE 25.00 ET6-198 25 Cellosize 2.371 209 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 1.40 ET9-3543 1.40 None 135 3,674 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 1.75 ET9-2835 1.75 None 162 3,062 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 1.75 ET9-2835 1.75 Acrylic 161 3,081 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 2.25 ET9-2205 2.25 Acrylic 222 2,234 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 2.75 ET9-1804 2.75 Acrylic 250 1,984 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 3.50 ET9-1417 3.50 None 362 1,370 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 3.50 ET9-1417 3.50 Acrylic 257 1,930 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 4.50 ET9-1102 4.50 None 448 1,107 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 4.50 ET9-1102 4.50 Acrylic 447 1,110 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 6.00 12” ET9-827 6.00 Acrylic 594 835 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 6.00 8” ET9-827 6.00 Acrylic 594 335 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 9.00 ET9-551 9.00 None 938 529 4002 3-25 lbs ETG 9.00 ET9-551 9.00 Acrylic 927 535 4002 3-25 lbs
Multi-Tex (Multi-End Texturized Yarns)
171 6
Nomenclature Binder Sliver Fil. Dia. Nominal Yield End Package Package Weight Tube Packages Resin Application (microns) (yds/lb) (TEX) Count (lb) (kg) Type ID per Pallet Compatibility
365-AA-1250 1222 406 6 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 365-AA-750 365 G75 9 746 665 10 4059 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 Polyester, Vinyl Ester Filament Winding, Weaving, Prepeg 365-AA-250 249 1992 30 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 Epoxy 449-AA-2500 2444 203 3 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 449-AA-1250 1222 406 6 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 449-AA-750 449 G75 9 735 675 10 4059 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 Epoxy Filament Winding, Weaving, Prepeg 449-AA-250 245 2025 30 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 463-AA-1250 1222 406 6 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 463-AA-750 463 G75 9 735 675 10 4059 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 Epoxy Filament Winding, Prepeg 463-AA-250 244 2033 30 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 933-AA-1250 1222 406 6 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 Polyamides, BMI, PEEK, 933-AA-750 933 G75 9 735 675 10 4059 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 PEI, PPS, PES, PEK, Filament Winding, Prepeg 933-AA-310 307 1616 24 16 7 Rhino Tube 3” 60 PAI, Epoxies & LCP
S-2 Glass® (Single-End VeTron™ Rovings) Nomenclature Binder Sliver Fil. Dia. Nominal Yield End Package Package Weight Tube Package Resin Application (microns) (yds/lb) (TEX) Count (lb) (kg) Type ID # Compatibility
VE1-AB-1200 VE1 P4.14 18 414 1200 n/a 4044 16 7 None 60 Vinyl Ester, Polyester Filament Winding, Weaving, Pultrusion & Prepreg VE1-AB-2400 VE1 V2.07 26 207 2400 n/a 4044 16 7 None 60 Vinyl Ester, Polyester Filament Winding, Weaving, Pultrusion & Prepreg
S-2 Glass® (Single-End ZenTron® Rovings) Nomenclature Binder Sliver Fil. Dia. Nominal Yield End Package Package Weight Tube Package Resin Application (microns) (yds/lb) (TEX) Count (lb) (kg) Type ID # Compatibility
540-AB-675 540 L6.75 14 675 735 n/a 4044 16 7 None 60 Epoxy Tapes, Pultrusion, LFT 4144 16 7 Thick Wall 6 3/8” 45 550-AB-675 550 L6.75 14 675 735 n/a 4044 16 7 None 60 High Temperature FTapes, Pultrusion, LFT 4144 16 7 Thick Wall 6 3/8” 45 Thermoplastic 758-AB-675 758 L6.75 14 675 735 n/a 4044 16 7 None 60 Epoxy Filament Winding, Weaving, 4144 16 7 Thick Wall 6 3/8” 45 Pultrusion & Prepreg 721B-AC-250 721B T2.50 24 250 2059 n/a 4044 73 33 None 27 Epoxy Thermal Acoustical
AGY Glass Rovings
S-2 Glass® (Multi-End Rovings)
19
AGY Chopped Glass
18
Engineered Chopped Fibers
E-Glass Products Silver Binder Length Package Application Resin (in.) Type Compatibility 9 micron 620 1/4”, 1/2” 40lb bags Various n/a 6 micron Various 1/2” 50lb box Various n/a EH18 700 2.0” 50lb box Carding n/a
S-2 Glass® Products Silver Binder Length Package Application Resin (in.) Type Compatibility SG75 401 1/4” 50lb box Various Epoxy SG75 402 1/4” 50lb box Various n/a SE37 544 5/32” 50lb box TP Chop Nylon(s) 2,000lb super-sack TP Chop Nylon(s) SG37 544 5/32” 50lb box TP Chop Nylon(s) 2,000lb super-sack TP Chop Nylon(s) SE37 553 5/32” 50 lb box TP Chop High-Temp TP 2,000 lb super-sack TP Chop High-Temp TP SG37 553 5/32” 50 lb box TP Chop High-Temp TP 2,000 lb super-sack TP Chop High-Temp TP
Long Chopped Fibers
Product Length Binder Package(s) E-Glass Chop D-K 3.3” Starch 1,000 lb bulk
Miscellaneous Bulk Chopped Fibers
E-Glass Products Product Length Binder Package(s) TP-40 Air Run-Back Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-40 Beam Cut Off Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-167 Uncut Forming Hanks Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-167 Cut Forming Hanks Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-167 Thin Tube By Product Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-167 Uncut Thin Tube By Product Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk TP-167 Startup Bands Various Starch 1,000 lb bulk
S-2 Glass® Products Product Length Binder Package(s) S-2 Fiber By Product Various Various 1,000 lb bulk
21
AGY Forming-Tube Input
20
Product Binder Sliver Fil. Dia. Nominal Yield Package Package Weight Package Resin Application (microns) (yds/lb) (TEX) (lb) (kg) ID Compatibility ECG50 762 7.7lbs to Full FTI 762 G50 9 5,000 99 Forming Tube 24 10.9 11” Rubber Automotive Timing Belts
ECG75 762 7.7lbs to Full FTI 762 G75 9 7,300 68 Forming Tube 22 10.0 11” Rubber Automotive Timing Belts
ECH15 762 7.7lbs to Full FTI 762 H15 11 1,500 331 Forming Tube 20 9.1 11” Rubber Automotive Timing Belts S-2 Glass® Product Product Binder Sliver Fil. Dia. Nominal Yield Package Package Weight Package Resin Application (microns) (yds/lb) (TEX) (lb) (kg) ID Compatibility SCE225 1/0 762 762 E225 7 22,500 22 Forming Tube 7.2 3.3 6” Rubber Automotive Timing Belts Forming-Tube Input Pallet Dimensions Pallet Dimensions Package Case Packs Layers Cases Packs Pallet Length Width Height Type Type per Case per Case per Pallet per Pallet Type US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) Forming Tube (6”) T-406 36 31 36 Wood 45 114.3 31 78.7 38 96.5 Forming Tube (11”) T-406 27 31 27 Wood 46.5 118.1 42 x106.7 50.5 130.2 G50 Forming Tube (11”) T-410 27 31 27 Wood 49.25 125.1 45 114.3 50.5 128.3
E-Glass Product
Wood
23
AGY Packaging and Pallet Specifications
22
YARN PACKAGING Yarn Bobbin Dimensions
Inside Flange Bare Max Full Bobbin Measurement Diameter Length Traverse Diameter Type Bobbin Package Type Units Type (ID) (L) (T) (FD) Build (Nom. Weight) Diameter (D) 7636 US (in) Plastic Tube 2.38 14 12.18 3.96 Double Taper 0.51lbs 4.50 SI (cm) 6.05 35.56 30.94 10.06 229.30g 1.43 8512 US (in) Plastic Tube 1.69 10.63 9.13 4.31 Milk Bottle 0.30lbs 4.0 SI (cm) 4.29 27.00 23.19 10.95 136.1g 10.16 8542 US (in) Plastic Tube 2.38 13.25 10.97 6.00 Milk Bottle 0.55lbs 5.88 SI (cm) 6.05 33.66 27.86 15.24 2.48g 14.92 8571 US (in) Plastic Tube 3.30 17.62 15.00 7.70 Milk Bottle 1.06lbs 7.58 SI (cm) 8.39 44.77 38.10 19.56 480.40g 19.24 9225 US (in) Plastic Spool 1.68 11.08 9.13 4.31 Straight 0.45lbs 4.18 SI (cm) 4.26 28.13 23.18 10.95 200.40g 10.62 9228 US (in) Plastic Spool 1.68 11.63 9.14 5.50 Straight 0.77lbs 5.05 SI (cm) 4.26 29.53 23.16 13.97 347.40g 12.83 Yarn Pallet Dimensions Pallet Dimensions Bobbin Case Bobbins Layers Boxes Bobbins Pallet Length Width Height Type Type per Pallet per Pallet Type US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) 7636 T-306 54 34216 Wood 45.5 114.3 45.5 115.6 45 114.3 8512 T-306 75 34300 Wood 45.5 115.6 45.5 115.6 36 91.4 8542 T-306 30 34120 Wood 45.5 115.6 45.5 115.6 43 109.2 RPPU 84 32168 RPPU 52 132.1 45.5 115.6 46 116.8 8571 T-402 28 22 56 Wood 51.5 130.8 45.5 115.6 42 106.7 RPPU 30 22 60 RPPU 51.5 130.8 45.5 115.6 42 106.7 9225 T-306 54 34216 Wood 45.5 115.6 45.5 116.6 38 96.5 9228 T-306 36 34144 Wood 115.6 115.6 115.6 115.6 38 96.5
MULTI-END TEXTURIZED YARN PALLET DIMENSIONS
Pallet Dimensions Bobbin Case Bobbins Layers Cases Bobbins Pallet Length Width Height Type Type Type US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) 4002 T-405 15 31 45 Wood 45 114.3 45 114.3 45 114.3 Roving Package
RPPU Wood
Wood
25
AGY Packaging and Pallet Specifications (continued)
24
ROVING PACKAGING Roving Package Dimensions Bobbin Measurement Inside Length Traverse Wind Max Outside Approximate Direction Type Units Diameter (ID) (L) (T) Direction Build Diameter (OD) Weight of Pull 4044 US (in) 6.38 10.50* 10.25 Forward Square Edge 8.68 15.00lbs Inside SI (cm) 16.9 26.70* 26.04 22.05 6.80kg 4057 US (in) 3.00 10.90 10.00 Forward Square Edge 7.00 7” Max diameter Outside SI (cm) 7.62 27.69 25.40 17.78 4059 US (in) 3.00 10.90 10.00 Forward Square Edge 7.00 Varies by Metered Length Outside SI (cm) 7.62 27.69 25.40 17.78 4144 US (in) 6.38 10.90 10.00 Forward Square Edge 8.83 16.00lbs Outside SI (cm) 16.19 27.69 25.40 22.43 7.30kg *The 4044 package does not have an inner tube. The glass is packaged into a cylindrical shape without a core.
AGY Yarn Beams Continuous Filament Yarn Beams Continuous filament yarns can also be provided as beamed yarns. Beaming is the process of accumulating parallel ends of yarn from a creel under tension and winding them onto large, spool-like packages. For applications requiring many ends of fiber input, this method eliminates the need for creeling many individual bobbins of yarn.
Beam Sizes Available (inches) 9002 9004 9020
Flange Diameter 36 36 40 Width 54.25 64 54.25 Barrel Diameter 11.75 11.75 11.75 Gudgeon Length 5 or 6 5 or 6 6 Gudgeon Diameter 1.625 1.625 1.625
Beaming Capability Beams are made to specific customer needs. Typical end counts range from 200-800, however, we have capability of over 1000 ends. Please contact your AGY representative for specific details of end counts and lengths for the yarns you are interested in.
Width
Gudgeon Diameter
Barrel Diameter Flange Diameter
Gudgeon Length
AGY Packaging and Pallet Specifications (continued)
26 27
Roving Pallet Dimensions
Pallet Dimensions Roving Case Packages Layers Boxes Packages Length Width Height Pack Type per Layer per Box per Pallet per Pallet Pallet Type US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) 4044 T-525 20 31 60 Wood (60) 46 116.8 32 81.3 39 99.1. 4059 T-525 20 31 60 Wood (60) 46 116.8 32 81.3 39 99.1 4144 T-525 15 31 45 Wood (45) 45.5 115.6 45.5 115.6 37 94 4044 T-525 9 3 1 27 Wood Creel Pak (27) 45.5 115.6 45.5 115.6 36.5 92.7
CHOPPED GLASS PACKAGING Chopped Product Pallet Dimensions
Nominal Pallet Dimensions Package Case Box/Bag Layers Box/Bag Pallet Weight Length Width Height Pack Type per Layer per Pallet per Pallet (lb) (kg) Pallet Type US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) US (in) SI (cm) 50lb Box T-360 93 27 1350 612 Wood 43.5 110.5 43.5 110.5 67 170.2 40lb Bag T-307 22 or 24 1 22 or 24 850-960 400-435 Wood 54 137.2 36 91.4 33+/-3 83.8+/-7 50lb Bag T-307 111 1600 725 Wood 54 137.2 36 91.4 33+/-3 83.8+/-7 1,000lb Bulk Box T-307 20 1 20 1000 435 Wood 54 137.2 36 91.4 33+/-3 83.8+/-7 2,000lb Super-Sack T-361 n/a n/a n/a 2000 907 Super-Sack 45 114.3 45 114.3 48 121.9
4059
50lb Box
32-50lb Bags 24-40lb Bags 1000lb Bulk Box 2000lb Super-Sack
4044, 4144
29
Sizing Systems for Yarns, Rovings and Chopped Products
28
Sizing Slivers Approx. LOI Sizing Type Sizing Comments Application Product Comments E-Glass Yarns 517 G37, G75, K18 Yarns 0.55% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Polyester with Resin Systems Faster Wetting Than 603 602 DE50, DE75, DE100, DE37, 0.45% Starch/Lube Made to Texturize Texturization Very Efficient Product G37 Yarns for Texturizing 603 G37, G75, H18 Yarns 0.60% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Polyester Compatible with Resin Systems 620 G75, G150, G37, H18, 1.20% Starch/Lube Workhorse Sizing Weaving Good Processability DE75, DE150 Yarns Industry Standard Industrial General Purpose 620-1 G37, E225, D450, 1.75% Starch/Lube Similar to 620 Weaving Good Processability D900, D1800 Yarns Industrial Fast Aqueous Wet-Out 622 E225, D450, D900, C1200 1.50% Starch/Lube Air Friendly Weaving Good Loom Efficiency 636 G150, DE100, DE37, 1.20% Starch/Lube Old Standard Weaving Good Processability BC150 Yarns Industrial Mostly Replaced by 620 641 G150, G75, H55 Yarns 1.00% Starch/Lube Workhorse Sizing Warping Good Processability for Industrial Industrial High Strand Integrity 723 G150, G37, G75, H18 1.20% Starch/Lube High Tensile Industrial High Tensile Industrial Applications 762 G50, G75, H15, 0.42% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Rubber Compatible S-2 Glass® Yarns 383 G37 0.70% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Polyester/Vinyl Ester S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems 493 G75, G150 0.45% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Polyester S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems 550 G75, G150 0.50% Resin Directly Compatible Areospace High Temperature S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems Industrial Thermoplastics 636 G75, G150 1.20% Starch/Lube Old Standard Weaving Good Processability S-2 Glass® Yarns Industrial Mostly Replaced by 620 762 E225 0.42% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Rubber Compatible S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems 933 G75, 0.23% Resin Directly Compatible Aerospace Toughened Epoxy/Thermoplastics S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems Poor Broken Filament Resistance Assembled 365 G75 S-2 Glass® 0.50% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Polyester/Vinyl Ester/Epoxy Rovings Assembled Rovings with Resin Systems 449 G75, S-2 Glass® 0.65% Resin Directly Compatible Aerospace Epoxy (Amine), Urethane Assembled Rovings with Resin Systems Industrial Compatible 463 G75, G150, S-2 Glass® 1.00% Resin Directly Compatible Aerospace Epoxy (Anhydride), Phenolic Assembled Rovings with Resin Systems Industrial 933 G75, S-2 Glass® 0.23% Resin Directly Compatible Aerospace Toughened Epoxies Assembled Rovings with Resin Systems Thermoplastics Compatible, Poor for Broken Filament Resistance Direct 550 G75, G150 0.50% Resin Directly Compatible Areospace High Temperature Rovings S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems Industrial Thermoplastics 550 G75, G150 0.50% Resin Directly Compatible Areospace High Temperature S-2 Glass® Yarns with Resin Systems Industrial Thermoplastics 721B T2.5, 0.40% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Very Efficient Product S-2 Glass® Rovings with Resin Systems for Texturizing 758 L6.75, U2.25 0.65% Resin Directly Compatible Aerospace Epoxy Compatible S-2 Glass® Rovings with Resin Systems Recreation Fastest Epoxy Wetout VEI P4.13, V2.07 Resin Directly Compatible Marine Vinylester with Resin Systems Weaving Pultrusion Polyester Compatible E-Glass 402 Various Input 0.85% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Urethane Chopped 1/4” Chop with Resin Systems 700 H18 0.44% Special Made for Carding Carding Good Dispersion and Processing 2” Chop Chopping Size in Carding S-2 Glass® 401 SG-75 Input 0.85% Resin Directly Compatible Industrial Epoxy/Urethane Chopped 1/4” Chop with Resin Systems 402 G-75 Input 1.20% Starch/Lube n/a Industrial 1/4” Chop 544 SE-37, SG-37 0.70% TP Chop Made for Extrusion Industrial Polyamides (Nylons) 5/32” Chop 553 SE-37, SG-37 0.75% TP Chop Made for Extrusion Industrial High Temperature 5/32” Chop Thermoplastics
31
Yarn Sizing Grids – Processability and Compatibility
30
Good
Fair
Poor
N/A
Good
Fair
Poor
N/A
S-2 Glass® Yarns L-Glass S-3 HDI Processability 383 493 636 550 762 933 620-1 620-1 Heat Cleanability Air Texturization Air Friendly High Strand Integrity Yarn Tensile Strength Tape/Facing Laminate Tensile Aqueous Wet Out Alkali Resistance Low Running Tension Broken Filament Resistance
Polymer/Resin Compatibility PVC (polyvinyl chloride) PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) Epoxy Polyester Vinyl Ester Cyanate Ester Phenolic Acrylic Polyurethane SBR BMI (bismaleimide) PTFE (Teflon‡) PA (Nylon) Polycarbonate PPS PEEK, PEKK
E-Glass Yarns Processability 517 602 603 620 620-1 622 636 641 723 762 Heat Cleanability Air Texturization Air Friendly High Strand Integrity Yarn Tensile Strength Tape/Facing Laminate Tensile Aqueous Wet Out Alkali Resistance Low Running Tension Broken Filament Resistance
Polymer/Resin Compatibility PVC (polyvinyl chloride) PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) Epoxy Polyester Vinyl Ester Cyanate Ester Phenolic Acrylic Polyurethane SBR BMI (bismaleimide) PTFE (Teflon‡) PA (Nylon) Polycarbonate PPS PEEK, PEKK
*933 size used on both yarn and roving ‡Teflon® is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
33
Roving Sizing Grid – Processability and Compatibility
Chopped Fiber Sizing Grid – Processability and Compatibility
32
Good
Fair
Poor
N/A
Good
Fair
Poor
N/A
Assembled Rovings Direct Rovings Processability 365 449 463 993 540 550 721B 758 VEI Air Texturization Low Catenary Low Twist Level High Strand Integrity Composite Tensile Strength Tape/Laminate Tensile Resin Impregnation Elevated Color Retention Low Running Tension Broken Filament Resistance
Polymer/Resin Compatibility PVC (polyvinyl chloride) PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) Epoxy Polyester Vinyl Ester Cyanate Ester Phenolic Acrylic Polyurethane SBR BMI (bismaleimide) PTFE (Teflon) PA (Nylon) Polycarbonate PPS PEEK, PEKK
E-Glass Chop S-2 Glass® Chop Processability 402 700 401 402 544 553 Heat Cleanability Hopper Flow Low Fines High Strand Integrity Air Conveyance Mechanical Conveyance Aqueous Wet Out Low Static Plenum Air Dispersion Can Be Carded
Polymer/Resin Compatibility PVC (polyvinyl chloride) PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) Epoxy Polyester Vinyl Ester Cyanate Ester Phenolic Acrylic Polyurethane SBR BMI (bismaleimide) PTFE (Teflon) PA (Nylon) Polycarbonate PPS PEEK, PEKK
35
Typical Fiber Properties
34
Category Property Test Method Units E-Glass L-Glass™ S-2 Glass®* S-3 HDI™ S-3 UHM™ Physical Density ASTM C693 g/cm3 2.55 – 2.58 2.27 – 2.29 2.46 2.39 – 2.42 2.83 Physical Hardness (Mohs Scale) – 6.5 6.0 6.5 6.5 6.5 Physical Moisture Regain ASTM D1909 % 0 0 0 0 0 Optical Refractive Index, 589, nm Oil Immersion – 1.547-1.562 1.496-1.500 1.520-1.525 1.516-1.520 1.584-1.588 Mechanical Fiber Tensile Strength Modified ASTM 2101 MPa 3445 – 4890 4630 4724 Mechanical Strain to Failure ASTM 2101 % 4.8 – 5.7 – Mechanical Impregnated Strand Tensile Strength ASTM D 2343 MPa 2070-2235 – 3569-3677 3270-3360 3228-3338 Mechanical Impregnated Strand Tensile Strength ASTM D 2343 GPa 69-76 – 87-90 85-86 98-103
UD Fabric Laminate Properties (60% FVF) Category Property Test Method Units E-Glass L-Glass™ S-2 Glass®* S-3 HDI™ S-3 UHM™ Mechanical Tensile Strength ASTM D 3039 MPa 775 – 1710 – 1435 Mechanical Tensile Modulus ASTM D 3039 GPa 42 – 56 – 62 Mechanical Flexural Strength ASTM D 790 MPa 1173 – 1690 – 1777 Mechanical Flexural Modulus ASTM D 790 GPa 41 – 55 – 61 Mechanical Compressive Strength ASTM D 3410 MPa 600 – 1140 – 1024 Mechanical Compressive Modulus ASTM D 3410 GPa 41 – 55 – 61 Thermal Coefficient of Thermal Expansion BS 1902-5.3:1990 10-7 /°C 54 39 29 35 54 Thermal Thermal Conductivity, k ASTM C177 W/m/°K 1.15 – 1.25 –– Thermal Softening Point Temp ASTM C336 °C 846 – 1056 940 964 Thermal Annealing Point Temp ASTM C337 °C 657 – 816 715 – Thermal Strain Point Temp ASTM C338 °C 616 – 766 655 – Thermal Flame Resistance ASTM D 2863 Oxygen Index 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Electrical Dielectric Constant, e’, 1 MHz ASTM D150 – 6.60 4.70 5.30 5.50 – Electrical Dielectric Constant, e’, 10 GHz Resonant Cavity – 6.10 4.86 5.20 5.34 – Electrical Dielectric Loss, tan d, 1 MHz ASTM D150 – 0.003 <0.001 0.002 0.005 – Electrical Dielectric Loss, tan d, 10 GHz Resonant Cavity – 0.004 0.0029 0.007 0.0075 –
36 37
Glossary of Terms
CARDING The process of untangling and partially straightening fibers by passing them between two closely spaced surfaces which are moving at different speeds, and at least one of which is covered with sharp points, thus converting a tangled mass of fibers to a filmy web. CHEMICAL SIZE A surface finish applied to the fiber that contains some chemical constituents other than water. CHOPPED STRANDS Chopped strands are chopped to various lengths. COATED YARNS Coated yarns are run through a coating bath, then dried in an oven.
COLLET A spool on which the gathered strands from the bushing are wound for further processing. CONTINUOUS FILAMENT A yarn made of filaments that extend substantially throughout the length of the yarn. CORONIZING Continuous heat cleaning and weave setting. CREEL That part of a twisting, winding or warping machine that holds packages of strands for further fabrication. CREELING the method used to supply many parallel ends of yarn, uniformly spaced. The creel is a support for yarn packages and tension devices. Creelingis performed for such operations as section beaming and warping, and where unidirectional reinforcement is required; for example, in supplying yarns to scrim masters and other yarn-laying equipment for reinforcing paper tapes. There are two types of creels. One is a simple pin creel, in which the yarn is pulled off as the package is rotated. The weight of the yarn package is usually sufficient for uniform delivery tension. The other type of creel – referred to as the “pirn” or cone-type – pulls the yarn over the end of a stationary package, using transfer tails. Tension devices are used to maintain uniform delivery of the yarn. Polished or chrome-plated surfaces minimize filament fracture and build-up of fuzz and dirt.
In the glass fiber textile industry, as with many other industries, there is widely used and commonly understood terminology. This section defines words or terms used in this publication and within the industry. ABRASION Wearing away by friction. Glass is highly resistant to abrasion by other materials, but can be damaged through contact with itself. A lubricant is used during processing and fabrication to prevent abrasion. BARE GLASS The glass as it flows from the bushing in fiber form, before binder or sizing is applied. BATCH OVEN Large temperature-controlled oven, used to heat-clean rolls of glass fiber fabric. BEAM A spool on which is wound a number of parallel ends of singles or plied yarns, for use in weaving or similar processing operations. BEAMED YARNS Beamed yarns are pulled in a continuous, parallel manner around a beam.
BEAMING Operation in which many ends of yarn from a creel are combined on a section beam. BINDER A material applied in liquid form to fibers, yarn or fabric, to retain structural integrity during further processing. (Also known as sizing.) BOBBIN The spool onto which yarns are wound. (Also known as package.) BRAID/BRAIDER A narrow tubular or flat fabric produced by intertwining a single set of yarns in a pattern. BUSHING A precious metal plate with holes through which molten glass is extruded into filaments. CABLED YARN Yarn that is plied more than once; yarn made by plying two or more previously plied yarns.
393 8
HEAT CLEANING Batch and continuous processes in which organic yarn binder is removed from glass fabrics. KNITTED FABRIC A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material. LOOM A mechanical device that interlaces fibers at right angles with varying degrees of weave construction (weight, thickness and design). More modern looms are air jet, but more traditional shuttle and rapier equipment is still in use. LOOM BEAM A large, flanged cylinder onto which all warp yarns are wound and from which yarns enter the looms. NON-WOVEN FABRIC A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers, or both, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means and combinations thereof. OVERSPRAY A specially formulated binder applied to texturized yarn that helps retain the bulk of the yarn after texturizing. PACKAGE A bobbin or spool onto which yarns or rovings are wound. PLIED YARN A yarn formed by twisting together two or more single yarns in one operation. (Also known as folded yarn or formed yarn.) PLY 1. The number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn. 2. The number of plied yarns twisted together to form a cord or cable. 3. The individual yarn in a plied yarn, cord, or cable. 4. One of several layers of fabric. POLYESTER COMBINATION YARN A polyester/fiber glass hybrid yarn. ROVING A multiplicity of filaments or yarns gathered together into an approximately parallel arrangement without twist. RPPU Reusable plastic packaging unit.
DENIER A direct numbering system for expressing linear density, equal to the mass in grams per 9000m of yarn, filament, fiber or other textile strand. DENSITY, FIBER Mass per unit volume of the solid matter of which a fiber is composed, measured under specified conditions. DIRECT-SIZED YARN Specially formulated sizings on textile yarns that allow them to be resin compatible. DISPERSION The process of suspending individual fibers (filaments) in an aqueous medium. E-GLASS A family of calcia-alumina-silicate glasses which has a certified chemical composition and which is used for general purposes and most electrical applications. (ASTM D578-90) END A single fiber, strand, roving or yarn being incorporated into a product. FIBER/FILAMENT An individual rod of glass, of sufficiently small diameter to be flexible, and of limited length. FILAMENT YARN A yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist. FILL The system of yarns running crosswise in a woven fabric (short for filling). (Also known as weft.) FINISH Coupling agent applied to fabric to improve compatibility with resins or to improve high-temperature lubricity. FLY Fibers which fly out into the atmosphere during carding, drawing, spinning or other textile processes. FUZZ Untangled or broken fiber ends that protrude from the surface of a yarn or fabric. GLASS BLENDS When several different fiber types, i.e., different lengths and diameters, are blended in the fiber slurry.
Glossary of Terms (continued)
40 41
Glossary of Terms (continued)
S-GLASS A family of magnesium-alumina-silicate glasses with a certified chemical composition which conforms to an applicable material specification and which produces high mechanical strength. (ASTM D578-90) S-2 GLASS® FIBER The AGY trademarked brand of high tensile strength “S” glass fibers. SCRIM A light, woven or non-woven fabric with relatively large openings between the yarns, used as reinforcement for paper and other products. SECTION BEAM A flanged cylinder onto which yarn is drawn and accumulated from yarn bobbins or packages. SERVING Wrapping of yarn around a product in one or more layers, to form a protective covering. SEWING THREAD A flexible, small diameter yarn or strand, usually treated with a surface coating, lubricant, or both, intended to be used to stitch one or more pieces of material or an object to a material. SINGLE YARN The simplest strand of textile material suitable for operations such as weaving, knitting, etc. SIZE/SIZING A generic term for compounds which, when applied to yarn or fabric, form a more or less continuous solid film around the yarn and individual fibers. (Also known as binder.) SLASHING The method of applying sizing to a width of warp yarns on a continuous basis. SLIVER Overlapping and parallel staple fibers that have been gathered into a loose, continuous bundle. SPLICE The joining of two ends of yarn by intertwining, knotting, overlapping or adhering them together.
STRAND 1. A single fiber, filament or monofilament . 2. An ordered assemblage of textile fibers having a high ratio of length to diameter and normally used as a unit including slivers, rovings, single yarns, plied yarns, cords, braids, ropes, etc. TENSION DEVICE A mechanical or magnetic device that controls tension. TEX A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the mass in grams of 1,000 m of yarn, filament, fiber or other textile strand. TEXTURIZED YARNS Texturized yarns are run through an air jet to achieve various degrees of fiber bulk and loft.
TEXTURIZED GLASS YARN A yarn processed from continuous filament yarn in such a manner to induce bulk to the yarn by disorientation of the filaments. TURN One 360° revolution of the components around the axis of the strand. TWIST AND PLY FRAMES Machines used to twist and ply glass yarns. VETRON™ ROVING AGY’s single end high strength glass roving designed specifically for compatibility with vinylester and polyester resin systems. VINYL-COATED GLASS YARN Continuous glass filament yarn, coated with plasticized vinyl chloride resin. WARP 1. The yarn running lengthwise in a woven fabric. 2. A group of yarns in long lengths and approximately parallel, put on beams or warp reels for further textile processing including weaving, knitting, twisting, dyeing, etc. WARP SIZE Chemicals applied to the warp yarn to improve strand integrity, strength and smoothness to withstand rigors of weaving. WEFT The system of yarns running crosswise in a fabric. (Also known as fill.) WINDING Winding is the process of transferring yarn from one type of package to another yarn package.

Updated: May 6, 2016 — 11:15 pm
S2-Glass © 2016 Frontier Theme